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CLAUSEWITZ IN ENGLISH
The Reception of Clausewitz in Britain and America

by Christopher Bassford

Oxford University Press, 1994

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Table of Contents

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INDEX

to the book as printed in 1994

This index contains inaccuracies (page numbers in the second half of the book may be off by 1 or 2 pages) because of changes made by the publisher to pagination after the index had been submitted. For this on-line version, use our Search function.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

A

Adams, Sherman, 159

Air Corps Tactical School (ACTS), 151

AirLand Battle, U.S. Army doctrine of, 203

Air power, 149-151, 158, 192

Alamein, first battle of, 74, 149

Alger, John I., 107

Altham, General (UK) Edward A., 75, 77

American Civil War, 35, 50-55, 61, 70, 79, 81, 82, 90, 117, 119, 148, 155, 160, 163, 171, 173, 208, 215

American Expeditionary Force (AEF), 156, 165, 168

American Historical Association, 117, 189

American Military Institute, 172, 189

"Apostle of total war," as description of Clausewitz, 5, 63, 113, 129, 220

Army War College (US), 53, 78, 117, 154, 158, 163, 164, 188, 202, 203, 155

Arnold, General (USAF) Henry H. (Hap), 151

Asymmetrical strategy, 161

Atomic weapons. See "Nuclear weapons"

Auchinleck, Field-Marshal Sir Claude, 74, 149

Auftragstaktik, 49, 77, 191, 231 n.46

B

Balance of power mechanism, 16, 24, 31, 33, 89, 113, 140, 147, 148, 156, 166, 198, 184, 214, 218

Balck, Colonel Wilhelm, 154

Balfour, Arthur, 85

Ballard, General [UK] Colin R., 232 n.15, 254 n.22, 259 n.81

Bancroft, George, 161

Battle, bloodless (in military theory), 9, 15, 16, 28, 142-143, 196

Battle, centrality of in strategy, 63, 72, 80, 140, 157, 180

    as only means in war, 15, 22, 28, 130

Beamish, Major North Ludlow, 38

Beresford, Admiral Charles, 98

Bernhardi, General Friedrich von, 87, 111, 155, 217

"Betrachtungen über einen künftigen Kriegsplan gegen Frankreich" ("Reflections on a Future Warplan against France," by Clausewitz), 88, 118-19

Beyerchen, Alan D., 226-227 n.29, n.32

Bigelow, John, 78

Birdsall, Paul, 125

Bismarck, Otto von, 19, 20, 23, 48, 65, 88, 95, 125, 171, 185, 198

Bismark, Friedrich Wilhelm, 38

Blenheim, battle of, 28

Blücher, Field Marshal Prince Gebhard Liberecht von, 37, 44

"Blue Water" school of naval strategy, 84, 96, 99-101

Blume, Wilhelm von, 69, 87, 89.

Blumenson, Martin, 255 n.5

Boguslawsky, General Albrecht von, 65, 87

Bourcet, Pierre de, 146

Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of, 108

British Expeditionary Force (BEF), 73, 104, 137

Brodie, Bernard, 3, 64, 97, 135, 174, 186-87, 189, 200, 201, 205-207, 222

Brower, Charles F., 152

Bull Run, battle of, 53-54, 118

Burne, Lieutenant-Colonel (UK) Alfred H., 180

Burns, Major [USA] John H., 172, 175, 192

C

Caemmerer, General Rudolf von, 87-90, 92, 95, 109, 119, 214, 220

Calhoun, John C., 167

Callwell, Colonel (UK) Charles Edward, 109

Camberley (British Army Staff College), 4, 35, 48, 62, 71, 74, 75, 77, 79, 104, 147

Campaign of 1796 in Italy, by Clausewitz, 45, 92

Campaign of 1812 in Russia, by Clausewitz, 10, 40, 45, 118

Campaign of 1813, by Clausewitz, 37, 62

Campaign of 1815 in France, by Clausewitz, 10, 41-45, 48, 54, 64

Cannae, battle of, 178

Castex, Admiral Raoul, 188

"Center of gravity," as theoretical concept, 27, 30, 106, 107, 131, 139, 151, 203, 247 n.23

Chaos theory, See Mathematics

Charles, Archduke of Austria, 18, 38, 50, 51, 61, 71

Charteris, Captain (UK) John, R.E., 90

Chesney, Colonel Charles C., 48, 49, 62, 70, 71, 84, 104, 110, 211

Chesney, Sir George Tomkyn, 70

Chicago, University of, 184

Chichele Chair in the History of War (Oxford

University), 83, 85, 110, 145, 146, 174, 192, 206, 217

Churchill, Winston Spencer, 98, 149, 192, 241 n.25

Civil-military balance, 4, 19-21, 22-23, 51, 75-77, 88, 91-92, 105, 120, 132, 155, 157, 175, 179, 182, 201, 202, 203, 213, 214, 215, 219

Clausewitz Project (Princeton University), 135, 206

Clodfelter, Major [USAF] Mark, 203

Cohen, Eliot, 208, 269 n.60,

Cold War, 4, 12, 114, 158, 161, 198, 199, 201, 209, 214

Colin, Jean, 45, 85, 92-93, 99, 109

Colomb, Admiral (RN) Philip Howard, 85, 95, 102, 104

"Colonel Blimp" caricature of British officer corps, 104, 134

Command and General Staff College (US Army), Fort

Leavenworth, Kansas, 78, 117, 154-158, 164, 167, 172, 196, 203

Committee of Imperial Defence (UK), 96, 101

Conger, Arthur Latham (USA), 117, 120, 247 n.23

Conner, General (USA) Fox, 158, 160

Corbett, Sir Julian Stafford, 8, 61, 95, 96-99, 101, 104, 106, 109, 110, 114, 131, 133, 146, 148, 149, 152, 155, 163, 164, 166, 175, 179, 187-189, 192, 204, 205, 216, 217, 221

Craig, Gordon A., 135, 174, 178-180, 185, 187, 206, 207

Crimean War, 17, 38, 40, 57, 60

Critical analysis, in Clausewitz's theory, 14, 48, 54, 180, 202, 208

Crowley, Aleister, 81, 136

"Culminating point," in Clausewitz's theory, 32, 45, 155

Curragh Mutiny, 105

D

Delbrück, Hans, 15, 47, 87, 89, 115, 124, 139, 174, 177-180, 185, 187, 205, 220, 260-261 n.4, n.6

    and Ermattungsstrategie, Niederwerfungsstrategie, 179, 180

De Seversky, Alexander, 150

DeWeerd, Harvey, 174

Dialectic, 224 n.1

Dickman, General (USA) Joseph T., 78

Dilke, Charles W. (MP), 85, 98, 102

Doctrine, military, 3, 5, 6, 7, 15, 36, 64, 80, 105, 107, 122, 130, 132, 135, 142, 146, 151, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 160, 175, 203, 204, 207, 209, 214, 216, 221, 222

Douhet, Giulio, 142, 150-151

Dulles, John Foster, 159

Duparcq, Nicolas Édouard Delabarre, 46, 51

Dupuy, Colonel [USA] Trevor Nevitt, 208, 269 n.59, n.61
 

E

Earle, Edward Mead, 114, 173, 174, 176, 178, 184, 185, 189, 204

    and military seminars at Princeton, 189

Easterners and Westerners (in World War One controversy), 76, 106, 131

Eccles, Admiral (USN) Henry E., 188, 189, 201

Economy of force (as theoretical concept), 93, 106, 147, 153, 164

Edmonds, General (UK) James Edward, 77, 104, 111, 125, 126, 136, 137, 196

Egerton, Francis, First Earl of Ellesmere, 6, 41-43, 45, 60, 61, 62, 217

Eisenhower, General and President Dwight D., 7, 8, 154, 157-162, 163, 175, 192, 197, 212, 219

Ellesmere See Egerton, Francis

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 70-72, 74, 80, 83, 124

Ends and means, relationship of, 22, 24, 26, 27, 49, 57, 109, 140, 161, 162, 201, 209, 219

Erdmann, Karl Dietrich, 206

"Ermattungsstrategie," 179, 180

Expansible army concept, 167, 169

Expatriates (German military writers), 114, 115, 174, 177, 180-188, 189, 190, 205, 212, 214

Experimental Mechanized Force (UK), 137

F

Falls, Cyril Bentham, 15, 23, 32, 114, 126, 145, 146, 148, 187, 189, 192, 212-214, 218

Finality of events, in Clausewitz's theory, 23, 121

Fischer, Fritz, 108

Fisher, Admiral (RN) John (Jackie), 85, 96, 98, 99, 109

Foch, Marshal Ferdinand, 92, 93, 106, 111, 127, 143, 147, 155

Franco-Prussian War, 37, 48, 62, 63, 67, 69, 106, 173, 177

Frederick II of Prussia ("the Great"), 10, 33, 89, 171, 178, 179, 187

French Revolution, 13, 16, 29, 33, 119, 198

Friction (as theoretical concept), 10, 16, 25, 26, 32, 38, 45, 75, 77, 81, 92, 191, 203, 206, 208, 219

Friedrich Wilhelm III, King of Prussia, 62

Friedrich Wilhelm, crown prince of Prussia, later King Friedrich Wilhelm IV, king of Prussia, 10, 58, 120

Fuller, Major-General John Frederick Charles, 8, 21, 81, 114, 115, 128, 129, 134-141, 143, 144, 147, 148, 153, 165, 166, 167, 185, 190, 192, 202, 205, 212, 216, 220
 

G

Gaddis, John Lewis, 161

    and symmetrical/asymmetrical strategies, 161

Gallipoli, 85, 106, 131, 241 n.25

Gat, Azar, 67, 105, 193, 207, 216

Gatzke, Hans Wilhelm, 180, 181

General Staffs, 108, 147,

    British army, 67, 73, 75, 77-78, 84, 85-86, 104 105, 110, 137, 145, 215, 245 n.2

    Imperial General Staff (UK), 76, 105, 137

    Japanese army, 87

    Prussian/German, 15, 19, 48, 69, 70, 90, 101-102, 124, 178, 187, 247 n.1

    United States army, 78, 85-86, 117, 165

German expatriates. See "expatriates"

German military model, 19, 35, 36, 49, 68, 77, 84, 106, 116, 175, 192

Gilbert, Felix, 174, 178

Gleichen, Colonel Count (UK), 75

Gneisenau, Field Marshal Augustus Wilhelm, Graf von, 37, 142, 227 n.45

Goltz, Field Marshal Colmar Freiherr von der, 75, 78, 80, 87-89, 99, 106, 108, 116, 153-155, 192, 217, 220, 222

Graham, Colonel J.J. (James John), 35, 56-60, 67, 69, 70, 72, 74, 78, 81-83, 114, 121, 122, 160, 172, 181, 183, 197, 206, 211, 233 n.8

Grant, General (USA) Ulysses S., 53, 135, 157, 215

Greene, Colonel (USA) Joseph I., 139, 172, 175, 189, 192

Greenstein, Fred, 159

Griess, Colonel (USA) Thomas, 51

Griffith, General (USMC) Samuel B., 133, 250-51

Gulf War, 27, 203, 207

Gurwood, Colonel (UK) John, 43

Gustavus Adolphus, 13, 45
 

H

Hahlweg, Werner, 134, 135, 206, 250-51 n.19, n.21, n.29

Haig, Field-Marshal Sir Douglas, 5, 75-77, 90, 91, 106, 107

Haldane, Richard Burton, 73, 85

Halleck, General (USA) Henry Wager, 51, 54

Hamilton, General (UK) Ian, 85

Hamley, Sir Edward B., 48, 71, 72, 77, 80, 83, 153

Hankey, Maurice, 98

Hansell, General (USAF) Haywood S., 151, 254 n.7

Hay, John, 51, 53

Henderson, Colonel (UK) George Francis Robert, 64, 71, 79-81, 83, 90, 91, 104, 107, 110, 120, 133, 147, 163, 173, 214, 217

Higham, Robin, 150

"High priest of Napoleon," as epithet for Clausewitz, 31, 138, 140, 142, 166

Hintze, Otto, 259 n.78

Historicism, in Clausewitz's theory, 13, 14, 220

Hitler, Adolph, 23, 125, 151, 177, 185

    military resistance to, 248 n.9

Hittle, Bridadier General (USMC) J.D., 122

Hore-Belisha, Leslie, 129

Howard, Sir Michael Eliot, 3, 9, 58, 67, 77, 79, 85, 107, 132, 135, 138, 140, 185, 197, 204

Hunt, Barry D., 97

Huntington, Samuel P., 200, 201, 204, 205, 215, 217

Hutchins, Robert, 184, 270 n.9
 

I

"Ideology of the offensive," 5, 81, 90, 103, 109, 110, 112

Indian Staff College, 90

"Indirect approach" (Liddell Hart's strategic concept), 129, 153

Infantry School (US Army), 172

"Inherent Military Probability," 180

Institute for Advanced Study (Princeton), 173, 174, 182, 189, 206

"Instruction for the Crown Prince," by Clausewitz. See Principles of War.

Irvine, Dallas D., 173
 

J

James, Colonel (UK) Walter Haweis, 75, 77

Japan, 7, 23, 73, 74, 102, 140, 152, 170, 100

Jellicoe, Admiral (RN) John, 96, 110

Jena, battle/campaign of, 77, 110, 125, 155

Jenkinson. See Liverpool

Johnston, Robert Matteson, 8, 54, 107, 116-121, 132, 164, 165, 168, 171, 175, 192, 212

Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), 152, 203

Jolles, Otto Jolle Matthijs, 172, 181, 183-185, 193

Jomini, Antoine-Henri, 15-19, 21, 25, 27, 36, 38, 43, 47, 50-52, 54, 57, 60-62, 65, 67, 68, 69-71, 75, 77, 83, 87, 95, 97, 105, 106, 110, 113, 116, 118, 122, 125, 130, 133, 142, 152, 153, 155, 166, 198, 208, 209, 216, 217, 225 n.5, n.8, n.9, 226 n.10

Jutland, battle of, 96
 

K

Kahn, Herman, 197

Keegan, John, 180, 261-262 n.16

Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact (1928), 148, 164, 191

Kennedy, John F., 129, 162

Kiggell, General (UK) Launcelot E., 75, 90, 104, 110

Kingston-McCloughry, Air Vice-Marshal (RAF) Edgar James, 150

Kissinger, Henry A., 161, 190, 197-198, 200, 205

Kitchener, Field-Marshal Herbert, 85

Kleinman, Forrest K., Master Sergeant (USA), 197

Kleist, Field Marshal Paul von, 247-48 n.1

Knorr, Klaus, 135, 206

Korean War, 109, 115, 157, 200, 215

Kriegsakademie, 153, 154, 247-48 n.1

L

Lanza, Colonel (USA) Conrad H., 155

Lauterbach, Albert, 250 n.10, 262 n.25

Lawrence, T.E., ("Lawrence of Arabia"), 74, 126, 127, 143

League of Nations, 84, 145, 148

Lebow, Ned, 201, 221

Leeb, General Ritter von, 214

Lenin, Vladimir I., 198, 245 n.4, 265 n.12, n.16

Lewal, Jules Louis, 87

Liddell Hart, Captain Sir Basil Henry, 4, 5, 8, 21, 53, 63, 64, 67, 68, 83, 93, 105, 106, 112, 114, 115, 120, 126, 128-135, 136, 138, 139, 140, 141-149, 150, 153, 165, 167, 179, 182, 185, 190, 192, 196, 197, 200, 201, 204-206, 212, 213, 216, 218, 219, 220

Limited Liability, doctrine of, 129

Lincoln, Abraham, 51-55, 80, 91, 120, 148, 157, 171, 215, 231-32 n.9, n.10, n.12, 239 n.7

Liverpool, Cecil Cope Jenkinson, Third Lord, 42, 62

Lloyd George, David, 76, 147

Lovat, Major-General Simon Joseph Fraser, 14th Baron, 101

Ludendorff, General Erich von, 12, 124, 125, 131, 132, 145, 178

Ludlow, General (USA) William, 38, 85, 86

Luttwak, Edward N., 199

Lyttelton, General Sir Neville, 75

M

MacArthur, General (USA) Douglas, 157, 158, 215, 157

Machiavelli, Niccolò, 152

Maguire, T. (Thomas) Miller, 58, 78, 82-83, 104, 105, 110, 160

Mahan, Alfred Thayer (USN), 83, 85, 90, 95, 96, 98, 99, 102, 114, 150, 152, 153, 163, 164, 166, 175, 188, 192, 204, 216

Mahan, Dennis Hart, 51

"Mahdi of Mass" (as nick-name for Clausewitz), 46, 63, 93, 113, 131, 149, 185

Makarov, Admiral (Russian Navy) Stepan Osipovich, 95

Makers of Modern Strategy (1943, 1986), 114, 174, 176, 178, 185

Malcolm, Angus, 207

Maltzahn, Admiral Curt Freiherr von, 61, 94, 95, 99, 109, 147

Mao Zedong, 15, 199-200, 266 n.20

Marathon, battle of, 180

Marine Corps, United States, 122, 132, 178, 203, 204

Marlborough, John Churchill, Duke of, 28, 61, 64

Marryat, Captain (RN) Frederick, 37

Marshall, General [USA] S.L.A., 205

Marshall, General [USA] George Catlett, 158, 169, 256-57 n.38

Marxism-Leninism, 199

Massive Retaliation, strategy of, 158, 159, 197

Mathematics, in military theory, 18, 21, 25-26, 46, 100, 102, 126, 208, 269 n.60

    Chaos theory, 26

    linearity and nonlinearity, 26, 32, 216, 217, 226 n.9, 227 n.32

Maude, Colonel (UK) Frederick Natusch, R.E., 52, 56-58, 69, 71, 74, 78, 81-82, 90, 104, 106, 110, 120, 122, 130, 136, 138, 140, 148

Maurice, General Frederick Barton, 147-48, 163, 192, 202, 212, 214, 253 n.16, 254 n.22, 263 n.37

Maurice, General Sir John Frederick, 64, 70-72, 74, 79, 82, 83, 84, 90, 104, 110, 114, 145, 147, 192, 211, 212, 217, 219, 233 n.8, 244 n.40

McClellan, General (USA) George B., 52, 157, 215

Mearsheimer, John, 134

Meckel, General (German army) Jakob, 74, 87, 89, 112

Meyers, Admiral (USN) George Julian, 61, 115, 152, 163, 164, 175, 189, 192, 216

Military correspondent of the Times, 74, 129, 145, 217.

    See also Times newspaper, London

Military education, 48, 69, 72, 84, 114, 175, 222

Military genius (as a theoretical concept), 11, 25, 29, 38, 53, 77, 88, 108, 162, 218

    and rules, 17

    and issue of character vs intellect, 11, 162, 218

Military history, the study of, 3, 15, 42, 43, 48, 60, 62, 72, 80, 85, 110, 117, 120, 153, 154, 160, 177, 178, 179, 180, 205, 208

    Clausewitz's use of, 14, 38, 45, 179, 185, 224 n.2

Military reform. See Reform, military

Mitchell, Colonel (UK) John, 39-41, 54, 57, 61, 62, 64, 211, 219

Mitchell, General (USAAC) William (Billy), 150-151

Moderation (in war). See War, moderation in

Moltke, Field Marshal Helmuth von, 3, 15, 19-21, 23, 35, 56, 60, 65, 67-69, 82, 85, 88, 91-93, 95, 102, 130, 133, 147, 153, 155, 159, 175, 181, 217

Mommsen, Theodor, 178

Montgomery, Field-Marshal Bernard Law, 133, 192

Montross, Lynn, 122, 132

Moral forces, 14, 18, 25, 26, 27, 29, 32, 38, 41, 44, 47, 57, 75, 79, 83, 89, 91, 92, 93, 96, 102-103, 104, 130, 133, 156, 181, 191, 204, 206, 219

Moral high ground, strategic value of, 91, 142, 213

Morality, and war, 5, 91, 113, 142, 145, 196, 212-14

Morgan, John Hartman, 123-124

Mori Ogai, 236 n.2, n.3

Morning Post newspaper, 84, 100

Mosley, Oswald (British fascist), 138

Müffling, General Friedrich Karl von, 20

Murray, John (publisher), 45

Murray, Major (Gordon Highlanders) Stewart Lygon, 82, 83, 89, 90, 91, 95, 104, 109, 110, 112, 126, 163

Napier, General Sir William, 61
 

N

Napoleon I, 10, 13, 16, 20, 23, 29, 31, 40-42, 44, 45, 51, 62, 81, 90, 117, 118, 125, 138, 140, 142, 145, 146, 153, 156, 166, 173, 179, 182, 184, 187, 208, 220

Napoleon III, 17, 61

National Defense Act of 1920 (US), 168

National Socialists (Nazis), 33, 172, 181, 182-183, 192, 249 n.16

Naval War College (US), 71, 95, 117, 162-164, 188, 203

Naval warfare, 94, 95, 96, 110, 166

Navy League (UK), 84

Navy, United States, 68, 114, 162-64, 175, 184, 192, 204, 216

Navy, Royal. See "Royal Navy." See also "Blue Water" school of naval strategy

Naylor, Colonel (USA) William K., 155-157

Nelson, Admiral (RN) Horatio, 94, 96, 179

"Neo-Clausewitzians," 197

Neuens, Major (Belgian army) Jean Baptiste Charles François, 46

"New Look" (Eisenhower Administration defense policy), 158, 161

Nickerson, Hoffman, 8, 141, 144, 164-167, 171, 175, 185, 192, 212-214, 219

Nicolay, John G., 53

"Niederwerfungsstrategie," 179

Nixon, Richard M., 159

Nonlinearity. See Mathematics

"Non-offensive defense" (NOD), 207

Nuclear weapons, 4, 7, 8, 12, 129, 139, 158, 159, 161, 162, 197-201, 205, 209, 214

Numerical superiority, in military theory, 17, 30, 44, 93, 100, 131, 170
 

O

"Observations on Prussia in its Great Catastrophe," by

Clausewitz, 74, 155, 207. See also Jena,

battle/campaign of

Offense and defense, relationship of, 31, 32, 33, 42, 44, 45, 47, 72, 75, 77, 81, 89-91, 93, 95, 97, 98, 101, 110, 130, 139, 145, 155, 160, 184, 199, 207, 216, 219

On War, by Clausewitz:

    "misinterpretation" of, 5, 106, 130-35, 143, 179, 200, 220

    philosophical background of, 224 n.1

On War, translations of:

    Graham translation (1873), 58, 59, 67, 70, 72, 74, 83, 114, 121, 172, 183, 197, 206

        sales of, 56, 69, 70, 74,

        errors in, 57-58, 72, 233 n.8

    Graham/Maude version (1908), 74, 78, 81-82, 122

        sales of, 74, 82

    Howard/Paret translation (1976), 3, 58, 135, 152, 204, 205, 207

        sales of, 3

        problems with, 58, 234 n.11

    Jolles translation (1943), 172, 183

    Maguire translation, See Maguire, T. (Thomas) Miller

Orwell, George, 144, 278 n.9

Osgood, Robert E., 200, 201, 204, 205, 222

P

Palmer, General (USA) John McAuley, 78, 120, 154, 167-171, 174, 175, 189, 192, 212, 216, 219

Paret, Peter, 3, 4, 9, 37, 57, 58, 79, 80, 92, 135, 186, 190, 204-208, 219, 220

Patton, General (USA) George S., 78, 153, 154, 160, 192

"Pax Britannica," 91

Personal experience, role in military theory, 38, 47, 52, 219

"Pied Piper of Modern Military Thought," as description of Clausewitz, 196

Pilcher, General (UK) Thomas David, 121, 122

"Plan 1919," 137, 140

"Plan of a War Designed to Lead to the Total Defeat of an Enemy," in On War, 88, 111

Playne, Caroline E., 124

"Poles of strategy," in Delbrück's theory, 89, 179, 187.

    See also Strategy, attrition and annihilation (Ermattungsstrategie and Niederwerfungsstrategie)

Polish origins of Clausewitz, accusations of, 125-26, 146

Pope-Hennessy, Major-General (UK) Ladislaus Herbert

Richard, 92, 99

Possony, Stefan T., 174

Principles of war, 38, 76, 77, 78, 107, 137, 147, 153, 156, 160, 187, 202

Principles of War (also called "Instruction for the Crown Prince"), by Clausewitz, 10, 13, 16, 27, 28, 58, 74, 95, 107, 120, 162, 173, 181-182, 220

Professionalism, military, 58, 65, 71, 84, 118, 119, 120, 154, 165, 183, 201, 215, 216, 217

Propaganda, 21, 123, 142, 166, 172

Public opinion, 27, 29, 32, 125, 147, 156, 166, 213

Pursuit, in Clausewitz's theory, 32, 42, 121, 143

Q

Quemoy and Matsu, 159
 

R

RAND Corporation, 201

Rapoport, Anatol, 58, 197

Rationality in war. See War and rationality

Rawlinson, General Sir Henry, 75

Reform(s)

    military, 4, 33, 37, 38-41, 46, 47, 49, 57, 60, 62, 71, 73, 77, 81, 84, 95, 121, 203, 211-212, 217, 219

        Cardwell, 48-49,

        Goldwater-Nichols, 203

        Haldane, 73,

    social, 33, 47, 48, 52, 62, 163, 211-212

Repington, Colonel (UK) Thomas à Court, 6, 74, 77, 83, 90, 100, 101, 104, 106, 110, 116, 129, 145

Roberts, Field-Marshal Lord Frederick Sleigh, 85, 101, 102, 104, 109, 112,

Robertson, Field-Marshal Sir William ("Wully") Robert, 7, 75-77, 105, 147, 215, 219

Robinson, Colonel (USA) Oliver Prescott, 156-57

Root, Elihu, 85-86, 117

Ropp, Theodore, 205

Rosinski, Herbert, 114, 115, 146, 163, 172, 174, 179, 180, 186-189, 190, 193, 205, 218, 219, 220

Rothfels, Hans, 114, 165, 172, 174, 180, 185-186, 187, 193, 205, 219, 220

Rowan-Robinson, H., 144, 148, 214

Royal Navy, 38, 42, 91, 94, 96, 97, 100

Russo-Japanese War, 97, 99, 100, 102, 107

Rüstow, Friedrich Wilhelm, 65, 87
 

S

Sabertash, Orlando (pseud. for John Mitchell), 39

Sandburg, Carl, 51, 278 n.9

Sandhurst, 38, 48, 56, 71, 136

Saxe, Maurice de, 16, 28, 126, 143, 182

Scharnhorst, General (Prussian army) Gerhard Johann David von, 31-33, 142, 227 n.45

Schimmelfennig, General (USA) Alexander, 52

Schlieffen, Field Marshal Alfred von, 89, 178, 181, 198, 207

School for Advanced Military Studies (SAMS, U.S. Army), 152, 203

Schurman, Donald M., 96-97

Schurz, Carl, 52, 54, 232 n.14

Schweppenburg, General Leo Geyer von, 248 n.1

Science, attempts to apply principles of to military theory, 18, 20-22, 39, 40, 51, 81, 87, 88, 126, 138, 139, 144, 145, 175, 204, 207, 218

Sea power, 18, 61, 94-103, 151, 166

Seeckt, General Hans von, 247 n.20

Seversky. See "De Seversky"

Sheridan, General (USA) Philip, 70, 169

Sherman, General (USA) William T., 53, 215

Shy, John, 135, 206

Sigel, General (USA) Franz, 52

Sims, Admiral (USN) William S., 163

Slade, Captain (RN) Edmond, 97, 101

Sloane, William, 141-42, 270 n.9

Social Darwinism, 82, 110, 141, 258 n.68

Social reform. See Reform, social

South African War (1899-1902), 61, 62, 75, 79, 90, 110, 121, 136, 155

Spanish-American War, 78

Specificity, in Clausewitz's theory, 24, 26-27, 33, 45, 47, 64, 72, 80, 88, 111-112, 126, 156, 172

Spicheren, battle of, 81

"Spirit of the age," in Clausewitz's theory, 13, 15, 24, 26, 64, 108, 109, 121, 171, 213, 220

Sprout, Harold, 174

Staff College, British army. See "Camberley"

Stahel (Számvald), General (USA) Julius, 52

Steinwehr, General Adolph (USA), 52

Stephenson, Nathaniel Wright, 51, 270 n.9

Stimson, Henry L., 167, 168

Strachan, Hew, 8, 35, 36, 41, 63, 72

Strategy. See also "Battle"

    as "art," 21, 218

    attrition and annihilation (See also Ermattungsstrategie and Niederwerfungsstrategie), 179, 180

    defined, 22, 26, 28, 29, 38, 63, 64, 72, 80, 107, 120, 130-31, 132, 153, 157, 164, 180, 197

    Moltke on, 20, 69

    and numbers, 30, 170. See also Numerical superiority

    subordination to policy, 22-23, 65, 68, 75, 76, 88, 91, 152, 153, 156, 175, 179, 192, 214-15, 216

    Symmetrical and asymmetrical, 161-62

Summers, Colonel (USA) Harry G., Jr., 199, 202, 203, 207, 215, 222

Sun Tzu, 15-16, 28, 75, 133, 145, 196, 204, 225 n.3, 250-51 n.19

Symmetrical strategy. See Strategy
 

T

Tauroggen, Convention of, 45

Theory, Anglo-Saxon skepticism of or aversion to, 47, 111, 122, 187, 190, 216, 218

Thursfield, James R., 5, 85, 95, 102-104, 106, 109, 204

Times newspaper (London), 74, 75, 85, 102, 129, 145, 217

Total war. See War, total

Travers, Tim, 91

Trübner, Nicolas (publisher), 57

Truman-MacArthur controversy, 157, 158, 215, 266 n.23, 269-70 n.3

Tuchman, Barbara, 132
 

U

Universal Military Training (UMT), 154, 168, 169

Upton, General (USA) Emory, 70, 167, 173
 

V

Vagts, Alfred, 114, 174, 180-183, 212

    and "militarism," 182

Versailles, Treaty of, 125, 140

Vidal, Gore, 51

Vietnam War, 4, 5, 49, 60, 75, 77, 115, 152, 199, 200, 202-205, 207, 209, 215, 219, 222

Violence (in military theory), 12, 13, 16, 22, 24, 38, 46, 63, 99, 140, 142, 160, 166, 183, 199, 202, 218

Vivian, Sir Robert Hussey, 57
 

W

Wallach, Jehuda L., 78, 207

War:

    "absolute," 12-13, 25, 27, 28, 53, 100, 107, 130, 31, 138, 139, 140, 145, 151, 173, 181, 182, 183, 198, 199, 200, 201, 219

    as "art" or "science," 21-22, 26, 28, 40, 130, 139, 204, 218. See also Science

    as an act of force, 21, 147, 160, 197

    as a continuation of policy or politics, 13, 15, 22-23, 36, 52, 53, 63, 75, 78, 97, 103, 120, 124, 147-148, 152, 164, 170, 179, 191, 197, 201, 209, 213, 219

    as a duel, 21, 30, 40, 227 n.42

    dynamics of, 21, 32, 36, 38, 45, 75, 81, 112, 213

    limited, 5, 8, 12, 13, 14, 63, 88, 89, 92, 93, 97, 98, 99, 103, 108, 109, 118, 119, 121, 129. 139, 148, 159, 178, 199, 200, 201, 216, 220

    limits of intellectualizing about, 11, 23, 24, 206

    moderation in, 9, 28, 33, 46, 109, 111, 118, 123, 124, 156, 213

    and rationality, 6, 21-24, 91, 108, 109, 113, 140, 156, 162, 182, 197, 198, 200, 209, 218, 219

    ritualization of, 28, 29, 40

    as a social phenomenon, 21, 22, 40, 140, 88, 131, 139, 144, 147, 204, 205, 213

    total, 5, 12, 13, 27, 53, 63, 103, 106, 107, 113, 129, 131, 145, 172, 182, 197, 200, 216, 220

    unlimited, 12, 14, 89, 97, 103, 118, 121, 139, 181

War College (US Army), 53, 71, 78, 94, 95, 97, 117, 154, 155, 158, 160, 162-164, 173, 174, 188, 199, 202, 203

Wars. See under full name (e.g., "Crimean War")

Washington, George, 171, 215

Waterloo, battle of, 41-43, 48, 61, 70, 186

Watson, C.E., 45

Watts, LTC [USAF] Barry, 203

Wedemeyer, General [USA] Albert Coady, 153, 154, 192

Weigley, Russell F., 4, 8, 24, 67, 68, 118-120, 132, 165, 213, 321-32 n.9, 235 n.5, 266 n23

Weinberger Doctrine, 3, 203, 215, 222

Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, Duke of, 4, 39, 41-45,

48, 54, 61, 62, 64, 71, 211, 214, 217

West Point (USMA), 78, 157, 160, 167, 169, 171, 172, 198

Western Front, 91, 106, 107, 119, 120, 129

"Westerners and Easterners" (World War One controversy). See Easterners

Wilhelm I, king of Prussia, first emperor of second-reich Germany, 20

Wilhelm II, emperor of second-reich Germany, 109

Wilkinson, Herbert Spenser, 6, 64, 71, 74, 83-86, 89-92, 95, 98-101, 102, 104, 106, 108-110, 112, 114, 116, 123, 124, 133, 141-143, 144, 145, 146, 152, 156, 163, 164, 175, 178, 189, 192, 204, 206, 211, 213, 214, 217, 221

Williams, T. Harry, 51

Willisen, Karl Wilhelm von, 65, 87

Wilson, Field-Marshal Sir Henry, 75-76, 92, 110

Wolseley, General Sir Garnet, 4, 71, 217

Woodhouse, W.J., 148

World War I, 4, 7, 8, 12, 29, 46, 61, 64, 67, 68, 71, 77, 78, 90, 96, 97, 98, 99, 104-108, 110, 112, 113, 114, 116-19, 122, 129, 130, 132, 134, 136, 145, 147-49, 150, 154, 162, 168, 178, 185, 186, 191, 204, 208, 212, 214, 215, 217, 219, 220

World War II, 4, 7, 23, 96, 98, 99, 104, 114, 115, 119, 129, 130, 136, 139, 140, 141, 145, 147, 148, 151-154, 157, 159, 161, 165, 169, 173, 175, 177, 180, 191-193, 205, 206, 212, 220

Wright, Quincy, 51, 176, 191
 

X

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Y

Yalu, battle of the, 73

Yorck, General H.D.L. von, 42, 45
 

Z

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