Which translation of Clausewitz's
do you have?
(And which one SHOULD you have?)
what you're buying—the on-line bookstores (including Amazon) frequently
confuse the different editions and translations! You wouldn't want to
end up with the atrocious Penguin
in 1968 by Anatol Rapoport.
Clausewitz's magnum opus, On War, has been translated into virtually
every major language. The Clausewitz Homepage strives to report
information about the study of Clausewitz in any field of study and any
language in which we find the subject discussed. Our focus is necessarily
on military and strategic materials in English,
followed by German, French, Spanish/Portuguese, and Japanese. (An "Other"-language
bibliography is HERE. All of
our bibliographies are listed HERE.)
Books in print by or about Clausewitz in various languages are available
from the Clausewitz Bookstore.
Any translation from one language to another necessarily involves interpretation
not only of the language but of the conceptual content. Even the most
honest and competent translation inevitably includes both technical errors
and arguable or controversial—if not flatly wrong—conceptual interpretations.
And not all translators are honest and/or competent. Further, even editors
working in the original language have been known to take liberties with
the writer's original words, sometimes because the writer (like most authors)
genuinely needed editorial assistance. Other editorial interventions are
prompted by political fear or ambition, conceptual confusion, or contrary
conviction (of either a technical or ideological nature). Changes in the
native version obviously can be reflected in translations. All of these
factors have certainly had an impact on the translation of Clausewitz,
so which edition you get can be important.
The most useful general bibliography for Clausewitz studies in German
can be found in the 19th German edition (1980) of Clausewitz's Vom
Kriege, edited by Werner Hahlweg: Carl von Clausewitz, Vom Kriege, Neunzehnte Auflage, ed. Werner Hahlweg (Bonn: Ferd. Dümmlers Verlag, 1980). Hahlweg researched the
history of the text and unscrambled Clausewitz's original wording as much
as possible from the interventions of later editors. Although there are
numerous other versions available, we strongly recommend Hahlweg's. See Die Clausewitz Buchhandlung—Amazon
Deutschland. A list of Clausewitz's editors and editions of Vom Kriege can be found in our German bibliography.
Carl von Clausewitz, ed. Werner Hahlweg. Gebundene Ausgabe (Dümmler,
Erscheinungsdatum: 1991), 19. Auflage, Nachdruck.fl.
NOTE: A complete German text
of Vom Kriege is on-line here and can
be searched electronically.
English Translations and Various Editions
There have been four more-or-less complete and a few partial English
translations of On War. These have been published in significantly
different forms—eight of which are listed and described below. The story
behind the Anglo-American study of Clausewitz is told in Christopher Bassford's Clausewitz in English: The Reception
of Clausewitz in Britain and America, 1815-1945 (New York:
Oxford University Press, 1994)—the full text of which is on-line.
Recommended English Versions:
|1. Trans. O.J. [Otto Jolle] Matthijs Jolles, 1943. RECOMMENDED. The Jolles translation is owned by Random House, though it was done for military reasons by the University of Chicago during WWII. This is by far the most accurate treanslation of On War available in English. Hew Strachan, Chichele Professor of the History of War at Oxford, is perhaps the most prominent military historian in Britain today. Strachan agrees with us on this point: "[T]he version most faithful to the original German," he says, is "that of O.J. Matthijs Jolles, first published by Random House in New York in 1943." [Strachan, Clausewitz's On War: A Biography (Grove/Atlantic, 2007), p.x.] The only editions of which we are aware are 1) the original 1943 edition from Random House; 2) a 1950 republication by Infantry Journal Press (republished yet again by AUSA in 1953), and 3) a recent compilation: Karl von Clausewitz and Sun-Tzu, The Book of War: Sun-Tzu, The Art of Warfare, and Karl von Clausewitz, On War, ed. Caleb Carr, with an interesting introduction by Ralph Peters (New York: The Modern Library, 2000). [That edition is pictured here.] Otto Jolles was a native German-speaker and a literary specialist on Clausewitz's era but had no military interests of his own (other than avoiding the U.S. draft). Peter Paret was also a native German speaker, but he left Germany in his very early teens, whereas Jolles became an accomplished academic in Germany and a literary specialist on Clausewitz's era before emigrating. Thus Jolles had no theoretical ax of his own to grind. His translation is excellent—indeed, better in many key respects than the current standard Howard/Paret translation, though there have been some criticisms of the German edition from which Jolles worked and all versions are at least somewhat uneven. The main problem with the Jolles edition is simply that it is not the standard version—and all that this implies in terms of locating quotations, checking citations, etc. Serious students seeking a precise English rendering of Clausewitz's language should, at a minimum, check Howard/Paret's wording against Jolles's. The version of Sun Tzu included in The Book of War is also excellent—this is the most modern translation, based on complete ancient texts found by archaeologists, by Roger Ames.
The most accurate version.
2. Howard/Paret translation (1976/1984). Carl von Clausewitz, On War, eds./trans. Michael Howard and Peter Paret (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976, revised 1984). This is the complete,
standard (though not the best), modern English translation of On War. It was
published in 1976 (mildly revised in 1984) by British historian Sir
Michael Howard and his student Peter
Paret, a German emigre to the United States. This edition grew out
of an academic "Clausewitz Project" launched by Paret at Princeton in 1962, but the underlying translation was done by an obscure British foreign service officer named Angus Malcolm.
||Availability: The Paret version is available from Princeton
University Press (image at left) in both
The Paret translation has also been licensed to Knopf's "Everyman's
Library" series in an excellent and inexpensive hardcover edition
(the image at right). It includes a very helpful chronology
and is, overall, the most useful version of the H/P translation. Note, however, that the
Everyman's edition is paginated differently from the Princeton edition—therefore,
our on-line Word Index will not (at present)
be helpful to those readers who purchase it (though the excellent Sumida concordance does include it). Citations to it will not be useful to readers looking for the quotations in the standard Princeton edition.
Some Drawbacks: Despite its many qualities, the Paret translation
has been criticized for presenting Clausewitz in too dry and rationalistic
a tone, and there are a great many places where the wording is oddly casual or shallow, awkward, or otherwise
arguable—translating Clausewitz's important extended metaphor of a wrestling
match as a "duel," etc. The translation of the critical "Trinity" section is remarkably imprecise and error-laden. The editors' decision not to be bound by too literal
a translation is both a strength and a weakness: it may possibly make for greater
readability overall, but it also channels the reader exclusively towards particular
interpretations and sometimes eliminates the possibility of other readings.
Perhaps more important, Paret is scientifically and mathematically
unsophisticated and does not appreciate the significance of certain scientific
arguments and illustrations in On War—most notably the nonlinear
imagery of the randomly oscillating magnetic pendulum in the famous
discussion of the fascinating "trinity," where this translation is particularly clumsy. Paret is a native German speaker, but he left Germany in his very early teens, whereas Otto Jolles (see discussion of his translation, above) was an accomplished academic in Germany (and a literary specialist on Clausewitz's era) before emigrating.
The Howard/Paret edition also suffers from a near-useless index. Added
belatedly in 1984, it covers only the names of individuals and places—hardly
what the reader looks for in On War.
However, a computer-generated word-index to this translation is
available here. Unfortunately, this word-index applies only to the
Howard/Paret translation (and then only to the Princeton version, not
the Knopf edition), since it directs the reader to specific page numbers
rather than to Book/Chapter/Paragraph. Jon Sumida (U.Md.) has developed a modern conceptual index (or concordance), which seeks to make the conceptual content as accessible as possible and applies to all versions of the Howard/Pret translation. Sumida's concordance is available here. Other indexes are listed/linked here.
|3. Boston Consulting Group's BUSINESS-oriented
translation (2001). Also recommended, but rather specialized,
is Carl von Clausewitz, Clausewitz
on Strategy: Inspiration and Insight from a Master Strategist, eds. Tiha von Ghyczy, Bolko von Oetinger, and Christopher Bassford
(John Wiley & Sons, 2001). This is a sophisticated business-oriented
translation of On War, highly abridged and focusing on Clausewitz's
theoretical approach to strategy in particular rather
than on broader issues like the nature of war, politics, etc. It has
already been translated into several languages. It was put together
by the famous
from Amazon.com. More info HERE.
(in rank order by usefulness)
4. Translator J.J. Graham (1873). British Army Colonel
James John Graham (1808-83) was an exceptionally earnest, honest,
and self-effacing translator, so there are no particular distortions or
biases in his version. Unfortunately, his German was not particularly
fluent, his translation was excessively dense and literal, his English
was Victorian, and the sources for the background information he offered
were weak. His original 1873 edition, printed in a single volume (the
complete text of which is on-line HERE),
was not a commercial success. It is now quite obsolete, though it has
historical importance. However, the original Graham translation
had a conceptual index which, though idiosyncratic, was far superior to
any subsequent index (especially the useless one provided by Peter Paret in
1984). The pure Graham version is not often found outside of special
collections, but many later publications are modifications or abridgements
of it. If you have any version of the Graham or
Graham/Maude translation, but especially the twisted Penguin version, we advise you to get the modern Howard/Paret edition (discussed above) or, if you are really serious, a copy of the Jolles translation. You can directly
compare the original German and Graham's 1873 English translation HERE.
5. F.N. Maude's edition of the Graham translation (1908). All
subsequent versions of the 1873 Graham translation are derived from the
3-volume 1908 editing by Colonel
F.N. Maude, which was very successful commercially and was reprinted
in 1911, 1918, 1940, 1962, and 1966. (Most editions retain Graham's useful
index.) Because of copyright issues rather than its intrinsic merits,
it provides the basis for most subsequent condensations and abridgments
of On War, e.g., the 1997 "Wordsworth
Classics of World Literature" version, abridged and with an introduction
by Louise Willmot. Unfortunately, Maude enthusiastically
inserted all sorts of anachronistic late 19th/early 20th-century imperialist
and Social Darwinist notions into his introduction and notes, notions
that have consequently come to be attributed to Clausewitz himself by
sloppy readers, journalists, editors, and historians. [Maude's introduction
is HERE.] You can directly
compare the original German and Graham's 1873 English translation HERE. The
full Graham/Maude version, in its easily identifiable 3-volume set, is
widely available in libraries. If you have any version of the Graham
or Graham/Maude translation, but especially the twisted Penguin version, we advise you to get the modern Howard/Paret edition (discussed above) or, if you are really serious, a copy of the Jolles translation.
6. Trans. Edward M. Collins, 1962. Clausewitz, Karl von, War,
Politics, and Power: Selections from On War, and I Believe and Profess, ed/trans. Edward M. Collins [Colonel, USAF] (Chicago: Henry Regnery Company,
1962). This is a partial translation containing, in addition to pieces
of On War, a short essay on patriotism and the value of the state,
labeled "I Believe and Profess." We don't see either any particular flaws
or any particular value in this translation, but it is very incomplete
and reflects very much a Cold War view of the subject—in short, not very
7. Penguin Edition (1968). AVOID. The most widely available version of the Graham/Maude translation (see
#4 above) is the weirdly edited and seriously misleading Penguin edition,
put together by Anatol
Rapoport in 1968 but still reprinted and sold today. Rapoport was a biologist
and musician—indeed, he was something of a renaissance man and later made
some interesting contributions to game theory. However, he was outraged by the Vietnam War and extremely
hostile to the state system and to the alleged "neo-Clausewitzian," Henry
Kissinger. He severely and misleadingly abridged Clausewitz's own writings,
partly, of course, for reasons of space in a small paperback. Nonetheless—for
reasons that surpasseth understanding—he retained
Maude's extraneous introduction, commentary, and notes, then used Maude's
errors to condemn Clausewitzian theory. Between Graham's awkward and obsolete
translation, Maude's sometimes bizarre imperialist and social Darwinist intrusions, and Rapoport's hostility
(aimed more at the world in general and at Kissinger in particular than
at Clausewitz personally—for whom Rappoport seems to have had a great deal of respect), the Penguin edition is badly misleading as
to Clausewitz's own ideas. The influential modern military journalist/historian John Keegan apparently derives much
of his otherwise unique misunderstanding of Clausewitz from Rapoport's
long, hostile introduction—necessarily so, since he has obviously never
read Clausewitz's own writings, not even the rest of the text of this
strange edition. If you have any version of the Graham or Graham/Maude
translation, but especially this twisted Penguin version, we advise
you to get the modern Howard/Paret edition (discussed above) or, if you are really serious, a copy of the Jolles translation.
8. Trans. Miss [A.M.E.] Maguire, w/notes by the translator's father, T. [Thomas] Miller Maguire (London: William Clowes and Sons, Limited, 1909). This book originally
ran as a serial in The United Service Magazine, March 1907 to March
1909. NOBODY uses this extraordinarily sloppy translation, full
of the Maguires' own ideas and assertions. If by some odd chance you have
it, put it in a glass case, get it bronzed, or burn it—but READ something
Word Index to the 1976/84 Howard/Paret
translation of On War. Find that idea or quote you're looking for
in your paper copy.
Read the 1873 Graham translation
of On War on-line.
Read On War in the original German: Clausewitz, Vom Kriege.
compare the original German and Graham's 1873 English translation HERE.
Read On War in French: Clausewitz,Theorie de la grande guerre, trans. Lt-Colonel de
Vatry, 3 vols., Paris: L. Baudoin, 1886-1887.